By Professor Bharat Bhushan, Professor Dr. Harald Fuchs, Professor Dr. Sumio Hosaka (auth.)
This quantity examines the actual and technical starting place for fresh growth in utilized near-field scanning probe thoughts. It constitutes a well timed accomplished evaluation of SPM functions, now that business functions span topographic and dynamical floor reviews of thin-film semiconductors, polymers, paper, ceramics, and magnetic and organic fabrics. After laying the theoretical historical past of static and dynamic strength microscopies, together with sensor expertise and tip characterization, contributions element purposes equivalent to macro- and nanotribology, polymer surfaces, and roughness investigations. the ultimate half on business examine addresses specified functions of scanning strength nanoprobes similar to atomic manipulation and floor amendment, in addition to unmarried electron units in keeping with SPM. Scientists and engineers both utilizing or making plans to take advantage of SPM strategies will enjoy the foreign viewpoint assembled within the book.
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Extra resources for Applied Scanning Probe Methods
6]). 33 I Dynamic Force Microscopy The area between the approach and retraction curves in a force-distance diagram represents the lost or dissipated energy, caused by the irreversible change of the surface structure. In dynamic-mode AFM the oscillation parameters like amplitude, frequency, and phase must contain the information about the dissipated energy per cycle. So far, we have resorted to a treatment of the equation of motion of the cantilever vibration, in order to find a quantitative correlation between forces and the experimental parameters.
Therefore it is possible that the tip atom changes position at different tip-surface distances during approach and retraction, effectively causing an atomic-scale hysteresis to develop. In fact, Hoffinann et al.  have measured short-range energy dissipation for a tungsten tip on silicon in URY. A theoretical model, explaining this effect on the basis of a two-energy-state system was developed. However, a clear understanding of the underlying physical mechanism is still lacking. Nonetheless, the dissipation channel has been used to image surfaces with atomic resolution .
Amplitude and phase diagrams measured in air with a Si-cantilever far away from the sample. The quality factor can be increased from 450 to 20,000 by using the Q-control feedback method A. Schirmeisen et al. Q) "Q. c Q. 28 shows that the dampening of the oscillator can be enhanced or weakened by the choice of G, cfJ = + nl2, or cfJ = - n12, respectively. The feedback loop therefore allows us to vary the effective quality factor QejJ = mwolaejJofthe complete dynamic system. Hence, we term this system Q-control.