Becoming a Physician: Medical Education in Britain, France, by Thomas Neville Bonner

By Thomas Neville Bonner

Focusing at the social, highbrow, and political context during which scientific schooling came about, Thomas Neville Bonner deals a close research of differences in scientific guideline within the uk, France, Germany, and the USA among the Enlightenment and international conflict II. From a distinct comparative point of view, this examine considers how divergent methods to scientific guide in those international locations reflected in addition to impacted their specific cultural contexts. The publication opens with an exam of key advancements in clinical schooling through the past due eighteenth century and maintains through tracing the evolution of scientific educating practices within the early 1800s. It then charts the increase of laboratory-based educating within the 19th century and the development towards the institution of collage criteria for scientific schooling through the early 20th century. all through, the writer identifies alterations in scientific scholar populations and pupil existence, together with the possibilities to be had for girls and minorities.

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Eit (Vienna: Hermann Bohlaus, 1973). 58. Herbert H. Egglmaier, "Das medizimsch-chirurgische Studium in Graz" (med. , University of Graz, 1980), 21-37. 60 In the tightly controlled world of the absolute monarchs, no figure of the Enlightenment exerted more influence on medical education than Johann Peter Frank. 62 For the next forty years, under the aegis of strong rulers, Frank organized new curricula of medical study, pushed for more bedside study in hospitals and clinics, brought the study of surgery closer to that of medicine, introduced courses in public health into the universities, and in a multitude of articles and public speeches preached the doctrines of rational living.

16 Differences among the curricula of 9. Hans-Hcinz Eulncr, Die Entwicklung der medizinischen Spezialfacher an den Universitiiten des Aeutschen Sprachgebietes (Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke, 1970), 42^15, 65. 10. Friedrich G. Wetzel, Briefe iiber das Studium der Medizin fur Jiinglinge, die sich ihr widmen wollen (Leipzig: C. G. Wcigel, 1805), 28. 11. R. D. , Princeton University, 1973), 124. 12. Ulrich Trohler, "250 Jahre Gottinger Medizin," Gottinger Universittitsschriften 13 (1988): 15-16. 13. Hans Bohner, "Die Geschichte des medizinischen Ausbildungs—und Priifungswesen in Deutschland von etwa 1240 n.

Any midwife who shall pretend as such to practise . . without a license from the Faculty shall be fined the sum of forty pounds"—but the fine would be canceled if she submitted to an examination. 17 Later in the century, British midwives protested vehemently the intrusion of male practitioners into a domain they considered their own. A pioneer obste- 13. Edward Harrison, Remarks on the Ineffective State of the Practice of Physic in Great Britain, with Proposals for Its Future Regulation and Improvement (London: R.

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