Environment, Forced Migration and Social Vulnerability by Bruce Burson (auth.), Tamer Afifi, Jill Jäger (eds.)

By Bruce Burson (auth.), Tamer Afifi, Jill Jäger (eds.)

This publication is likely one of the outputs of the convention on ‘Environmental swap, compelled Migration, and Social Vulnerability’ (EFMSV) held in Bonn in October 2008. Migration is without doubt one of the oldest model measures of humanity. certainly, with out migration the multitude of civilizations and interactions among them – peaceable and in a different way – will be difficult to visualize. The United international locations (UN)-led worldwide discussion on migration is a transparent signal that governments and the really expert UN companies and our bodies have famous the necessity to view, govern, deal with, and facilitate migration; to mitigate its unwanted effects; and to capitalize at the optimistic ones. it's a universal expectation between specialists that environmentally brought about migration will extra elevate within the a long time to return. as a result, subsequent to the political, monetary, ethnic, social, monetary, humanitarian, and safeguard features of migration, the environmental part should still urgently be thought of within the ongoing foreign discussion on migration. This want is additionally a problem. with no applicable clinical wisdom, evaluation, definitions, and classifications, the intergovernmental frameworks wouldn't have the capacity to take care of those advanced phenomena. The Five-Pronged-Approach as formulated by means of the United countries collage (UNU) might function a framework to spot the extra dimensions of this problem subsequent to – and truly concurrently with – the clinical one.

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Greenhouse gases ! Global warming ! Desertification ! Migration ! Conflict, etc. As Edelman (1991) suggests, very few situations are recognised as a public problem and get registered on the political agenda. The recognition of a problem does not occur automatically; it depends on various parameters not necessarily related to the gravity of the situation. Serious problems can remain 2 This chapter is based on observations and personal interviews with agents of the French and Indian administrations and the United Nations (Geneva).

This observation was confirmed by many interviewees, particularly amongst elderly people. Many of them, unwilling to leave, were convinced to do so by their children, grandchildren, or friends. Previous studies have shown a strong correlation between age and evacuation decision (Gladwin and Peacock, 1997), and this correlation could clearly be observed here. In that regard, it should also be noted that those who had friends or relatives living outside New Orleans were more likely to evacuate: ‘evacuees of all income levels prefer to stay with family or friends; thus, having kin or social networks outside the threatened area, but not too far, is an important factor encouraging evacuation’ (Laska and Hearn Morrow, 2006: 10).

1007/978-3-642-12416-7_3, Ó Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010 29 30 F. Gemenne factors were cumulative, amounting in a high rate of social vulnerability, far higher than the national American average. Such inequalities in the face of the hurricane were revealed and exposed during the evacuation: most of those who did not evacuate and were stranded in the flooded city belonged to the categories mentioned above. 1 I expose the role played by social vulnerabilities in the evacuation pattern and then look at the way the evacuation and the evacuees were characterised by the media, through the lens of the ‘refugee controversy’.

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