Fiber Optics: Technology and Applications, 1st Edition by Stewart D. Personick (auth.)

By Stewart D. Personick (auth.)

This ebook is an outgrowth of a path given via the writer for individuals in undefined, govt, and universities wishing to appreciate the implica­ tions of rising optical fiber know-how, and the way this expertise will be utilized to their particular details delivery and sensing method wishes. The direction, in flip, is an outgrowth of 15 fascinating years within which the writer participated within the examine and improvement, in addition to within the program, of fiber expertise. the purpose of this booklet is to supply the reader with a operating wisdom of the elements and subsystems which make up fiber structures and of a large choice of applied and proposed functions for fiber expertise. The publication is directed essentially at those that will be clients, in preference to builders, of the know-how. the 1st half this publication is an outline of parts and subsys­ tems together with fibers, connectors, cables, resources, detectors, receivers, transmitters, and miscellaneous parts. The objective is to familiarize the reader with the homes of those elements and subsystems to the level essential to comprehend their capability purposes and limitations.

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This enhances coupling to multimode sources. However, a larger numerical aperture is achieved by increased doping of the core, which causes increased Rayleigh scattering loss due to compositional fluctuations in the material, and increases cost. A larger cladding diameter increases the susceptibility of the fiber to strain when it is bent around curves. However, too small a cladding diameter can also make the fiber fragile. Also, the cladding must be thick enough to prevent evanescent fields extending from the core into the cladding from experiencing high losses at the cladding-jacket interface.

Figure 2-35 shows the ends of fibers which have been prepared by cleaving methods. If not done properly one obtains the defects shown in (a) and (b). These defects prevent the fibers from being placed in proper mechanical alignment. However, with proper technique, the flat end shown in example (c) can be obtained. In this figure, the fibers were bent over a curved surface after scribing and during the application of breaking tension. The parameter R signifies the radius of curvature of the bend applied.

Additional losses (beyond extrinsic losses) can occur if the fiber parameters are mismatched. For example fibers with different core diameters cannot couple in a lossless fashion in both directions since light filling the larger core cannot be coupled into the smaller core. Similarly fibers with nonidentical index of refraction profiles will not couple perfectly. x-out 18m• x-;n Figure 2-31 Multimode Fiber Splice Loss vs Core Size or Critical Angle Mismatch. 37 Sec. 75 Figure 2-32 Single Mode Fiber Splice Loss vs Spot Size Mismatch.

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