Food Texture and Viscosity, Edition: First by Malcolm C. Bourne (Auth.)

By Malcolm C. Bourne (Auth.)

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They consist of outer layers of skin, pads of subcutaneous fat, muscles associated with chewing and facial expression, and inner linings of stratified squamous epithelium. The cheeks keep the food within the oral cavity and return the food between the teeth between bites. 4. The tongue (lingua) is a strong, mobile, muscular organ with its base and central part attached to the floor of the mouth. It nearly fills the oral cavity when 30 2. Body-Texture Interactions the mouth is closed. It is a very active organ during the act of mastication, working in close proximity to the teeth but seldom caught between the teeth.

Redrawn from Morrow and Mohsenin, 1966; copyright Academic Press Inc (London) Ltd. ] 55 Force Measuring Instruments Morrow and Mohsenin (1966) showed that the theoretical stress distribution under a rigid die acting against a semiinfinite elastic body follows the Boussinesq equation: Ρ = F/2>na (a 2 2 - r ) 1 / 2 , (1) where Ρ is the pressure at any point under the punch, F is the total force applied to punch, a is the radius of punch, and r is the distance from center of punch to stressed area.

5 98 105 84 105 100 45 27 38 48 24 34 23 20 28 30 Rate of Compression between the Teeth TOUGHNESS 37 •*- FIG. 6. Schematic representation of the relationship between chewing rate and power output on foods of increasing toughness. this point the power output remains approximately constant, and this is achieved by slowing the rate of mastication. One chews tough meat and chewy caramels more slowly than foods that require less energy for mastication. The chewing pattern is completely changed with extremely hard foods such as rock candy and nuts in the shell.

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