FORTH on the Atari: Learning by Using by E. Floegel

By E. Floegel

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Before starting the loop, a zero must be on the stack. The loop terminates if the condition X=lOO is true. The result is then printed. TERMINAL 4 = UNTIL ; 4-5 BEGIN ••• WHILE ••• REPEAT • This loop is different from the BEGIN ••• UNTIL loop. The word WHILE expects a flag on the stack. As long as this flag is nonzero, the words between WHILE and REPEAT are executed. An unconditional branch leads back to the BEGIN. If WHILE finds a zero on the stack, the words between WHILE and REPEAT are neglected and the word following REPEAT is executed.

TERMINAL UNTIL ; DWN 200 100 DO 8 10 I a SOUND 100 WAIT LOOP ; UP 100 200 DO 8 10 I 0 SOUND 100 WAIT -1 +LOOP ; EUSI 10 0 DO UP DWN LOOP OFF; The word CC in screen 83 simulates a dropped coin. These examples are from the book " ATARI BASIC Learning by Using " by Tomas E . Rowley . 44 Some more sound words are in the next screens. EXPL simulates an explosion by changing the volume and the pitch on three channels. In the last screen we have the word SIREN for simulating an american police siren and the word EUSI for an european police siren.

In a computer with a 6502 CPU the RETURN stack is equal to the stack used by the CPU. During execution of a loop, FORTH places the loop index on top of this stack. With the word I, you can copy the top of the RETURN stack to the parameter stack. I -n) Example: Copy of the return stack to the parameter stack. Let us print the numbers from one to nine on the screen. NR 10 1 DO I LOOP; NR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 OK Just to show that a loop is executed at least once, we change the boundaries of the loop.

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