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Extra resources for Genomic and Functional Analyses, Edition: 1st
Conversely, linear filters intended to enhance edges suffer from sensitivity to noise. 45 n8 n7 n4\ n9 n5 n l n9 n8 n7 n6 n5 n4 n8 n9 n6 n7 n8 n9 / n6 n9 n8 n3 n5 n7 n2 n3 n6 n l n5n9 n4 n7 n8 Figure 15. Radial filter coefficients. (b) Non-linear filters Many non-linear filters have been designed to preserve or enhance edge information while improving signal-to-noise ratio. In the simplest case, linear filters can be modified to omit hot spots (extremely bright or dark pixels) from the neighbourhood calculation, and are known as trimmed filters.
Extracted DNA is randomly fragmented and cloned into thousands of individual vectors, possibly plasmids, cosmids or phages. A host strain is then used to hold each of the recombinant clones. As the host replicates, the inserted DNA fragment is faithfully reproduced. Escherichiu coli is commonly used to maintain plasmids and cosmids. Larger inserts of DNA are held by yeast strains. Sometimes a DNA fragment is inserted into a plaque such as the M13 virus, which is then permitted to infect a bacterial host.
Real-time video can be displayed on the host PC display, useful for adjusting the lens focus and f-number. No external video monitor is required because the PCI bus is used to transfer the image into PC memory at 45 Mbs-' or higher. For the same reason, the DT3155 does not require on-board memory. 113mm 576 The horizontal resolution is determined by the 752 pixels per line available at the camera. ++++++ IV. DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING An enormous body of image processing techniques has been developed since the 1960s.