Handbook of Vitamins, Edition: 3rd ed., rev. and expanded by Robert B. Rucker, John W. Suttie, Donald B. McCormick

By Robert B. Rucker, John W. Suttie, Donald B. McCormick

Univ. of California, Davis. entire resource of nutrition functionality summaries. Covers water and fat-soluble supplements, evaluate tools for dietary deficiency, and the protection of excessive degrees of diet use. For nutritionists, clinicians, and different healthcare execs. prior variation: c1991.

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Additional info for Handbook of Vitamins, Edition: 3rd ed., rev. and expanded

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Cross-regulation exists, inasmuch as IFN-γ inhibits T H 2 cell proliferation and IL-10 and IL-4, via different mechanisms, inhibit both T H 1 cell development and IFN-γ production (88). In mesenteric lymph node cells of vitamin A–deficient mice, IFN-γ is overproduced and IL-10 and IL-5 are underproduced (88). Thus, the ratio of T H 1 to T H 2 cells is increased, presumably leading to an enhancement of the CMI response and to a decrease in the antibody response (88). These interesting observations explain the decrease in humoral immunity in vitamin A deficiency but do not accord with the general observation that CMI responses are usually depressed in vitamin A deficiency (81).

Smaller doses (25,000–100,000 IU a ) have been used in younger children. Because vitamin A is generally well absorbed and is stored in the liver and other tissues, the procedure has been effective in reducing the incidence of acute vitamin A deficiency in children. Although vitamin A is relatively inexpensive, the logistics of maintaining a public health measure involving the individual dosing of children has not always proved easy. Lactating women in less industrialized countries are also at risk.

Vitamin A also forms several β-glucuronides by interacting with UDP-glucuronic acid in the presence of glucuronyltransferases. The most interesting of these conjugates are retinyl β-glucuronide and retinoyl β-glucuronide, both of which retain high biological activity (53). Both are synthesized in the intestine, in the liver, and probably in other tissues. In addition, both are endogenous components of human blood and, together with the glucuronides of 4-ketoretinoic acid and of other oxidized metabolites, appear in the bile (53).

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