Laser Physics, 2nd Edition by Milonni P.W., Eberly J.H.

By Milonni P.W., Eberly J.H.

Even supposing the elemental rules of lasers have remained unchanged some time past twenty years, there was a shift within the sorts of lasers producing curiosity. supplying a accomplished advent to the working ideas and functions of lasers, this moment variation of the vintage publication at the topic unearths the newest advancements and functions of lasers. putting extra emphasis on purposes of lasers and on optical physics, the book's self-contained discussions will entice physicists, chemists, optical scientists, engineers, and complex undergraduate scholars.

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4 A standard source is G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure. Volume I, Spectra of Diatomic Molecules, Robert E. Krieger, Malabar, FL, 1989. 7 The vibrational energy level spacing of a real (anharmonic) diatomic molecule decreases with increasing vibrational energy. † For a simple check on our theory, consider the two molecules hydrogen fluoride (HF) and deuterium fluoride (DF). These molecules differ only to the extent that D has a neutron and a proton in its nucleus and H has only a proton.

In this independent-particle approximation an electron state is still characterized by the four quantum numbers (n, ‘, m, ms ), as in the case of hydrogen. 11) does not apply, and in particular the energy depends on both n and ‘ (but not m or ms) as sketched in Fig. 3. The simplest multielectron atom, of course, is helium, in which there are Z ¼ 2 electrons. The lowest energy state for each electron is characterized in the independentparticle approximation by the quantum numbers n ¼ 1, ‘ ¼ 0, m ¼ 0, and ms ¼ + 12.

This quantum picture is consistent with a highly simplified description of laser action. Suppose that lasing occurs on the transition defined by levels 1 and 2 of Fig. 12. In the most favorable situation the lower level (level 1) of the laser transition is empty. To maintain this situation a mechanism must exist to remove downward jumping electrons from level 1 to another level, say level 0. In this situation there can be no detrimental absorption of laser photons due to transitions upward from level 1 to level 2.

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