By Hans-Dieter Klingemann, Andrea Volkens, Judith Bara, Ian Budge
This ebook is one of the most crucial resource of facts released in past times at the consolidation of democracy in jap Europe. It presents estimates of social gathering positions, voter personal tastes and executive coverage from election programmes accumulated systematically for fifty one nations from 1990 onwards. Time-series are provided within the textual content. This additionally experiences occasion lifestyles histories (essential to over the years analyses) and gives up-to-date and newly established vote records. All this knowledge and lots more and plenty extra is offered at the dedicated site defined within the ebook. the ultimate bankruptcy offers directions on the right way to entry the knowledge by yourself laptop. For comparative reasons, related estimates of coverage and personal tastes are given for CEE, OECD and ecu international locations. those estimates replace the prize-winning info set coated in Mapping coverage personal tastes: Estimates for events, Electors and Governments 1945-1998 - additionally released through OUP. A must-buy for all commentators, scholars and analysts of democracy, in jap Europe and the world.
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Additional info for Mapping Policy Preferences II: Estimates for Parties, Electors and Governments in Central and Eastern Europe, European Union and OECD 1990-2003 Includes CD-ROM (v. 2)
The self-styled Union of Democratic Forces (SDS) is generally on the Right, though the BSP leapfrogged it in 1997. The Agrarian National Union (BZNS) have been more centrist in policy terms. The Business Bloc (BBB) was in 1994 well to the Right of the BSP although their policy positions leapfrogged each other quite dramatically in 1997. While in broad terms Bulgaria maintains a general policy contrast between the parties the relationship reveals odd anomalies which seem to indicate that something more than Left-Right divisions are needed to explain its politics.
In 1997, UW is successor to UD. latter spectacularly leapfrogs all parties, including their coalition partners, the Communists, in the 1998 election. In the late 1990s, it seems that all six main parties were essentially centrist in terms of ideological orientation (Tóka 2004). However, in 2002 both FiDeSz and SzDSz move to a clearer yet moderate rightist position. By the end of the period the party system thus seems to have consolidated, with these parties advocating policies consonant with overall ideological aﬃliations whilst the Socialist MSzP moves to a moderate left position.
1, and subtracting the sum of the left percentages from the sum of the right percentages. This gives a score for each party-in-an-election, based on its oﬃcial programme, indicating where it was in Left-Right terms. In the ﬁgures presented in this chapter, therefore, negative scores represent left positions and positive scores represent right positions (sometimes this has been reversed in the past, as in Budge and Hoﬀerbert 1990; Klingemann et al. 1994). At the extreme (never in practice attained) a party devoting its entire programme to left-wing issues would score −100: similarly a totally right-wing programme would score +100.