Pyrrhus of Epirus

By Jeff Champion

Pyrrhus of Epirus was once rated by means of Hannibal because the moment maximum normal but noticeable (placing himself third). certainly, Hannibal spoke of Pyrrhus as his instructor, even though the 2 by no means met, due to the fact he learnt rather a lot of the artwork of struggle from his writings. Pyrrhus used to be born into the royal residence of Epirus, northwest Greece, and was once a second-cousin of Alexander the good. His mom was once pressured to escape into exile to guard his lifestyles whilst he was once an insignificant baby, but he prospered in stricken instances and went from a refugee to develop into king. continually an adventurer with an eye fixed for the most likelihood, he used to be deeply considering the cut-and-thrust campaigning, coups and subterfuges of the Successor kingdoms. At numerous instances he was once king of Epirus (twice), Macedon (twice) and Sicily, in addition to overlord of a lot of southern Italy. In 281 BC he used to be invited via the southern Italian states to shield them opposed to the competitive growth of the burgeoning Roman republic. His early victories over the Roman armies at Heraclea and Asculum (assisted via his use of elephants) have been gained at this kind of excessive fee in casualties that they gave us the expression 'Pyrrhic victory'. those battles have been the 1st clashes among the hitherto-dominant Hellenistic means of war (as constructed via Alexander) and the Roman legions, and so choked with tactical curiosity. He failed in Italy and Sicily but if directly to extra army adventures in Greece, finally being killed in motion whereas storming the town of Argos.

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Justin, 25. five. Bibliography Billows, RA, Antigonos the One-eyed and the production of the Hellenistic kingdom (Berkeley, 1990). Bosworth, AB, The legacy of Alexander: politics, conflict, and propaganda below the successors (Oxford, 2002). Burn, AR, Persia & the Greeks (London, 1984). Champion, J, ‘The factors of the 3rd Diadoch battle 315-311 BC’, in Slingshot, 213 (2001), pp 3-6. Chaniotis, battle within the Hellenistic international, (Malden, 2005). Garoufalias, P, Pyrrhus, King of Epirus (London, 1979). Goldsworthy, A, Roman struggle, (London, 2000).

20. Justin, Prologues, 17 21. Billows, RA, Antigonos the One-eyed and the production of the Hellenistic country (Berkeley, 1990), pp. 350-1. 22. Cassius Dio, forty. 6; Garoufalias, p. sixty six. 23. Justin, 17. 2. 24. Ammanius, 24. 6. Ammanius used to be a Roman normal and historian of the fourth century advert. 25. Arrian, Anabasis, five. 16-17. 26. Arrian, Anabasis, five. 17. 27. Diodorus, 18. 34. 28. Polybius, three. forty six. 29. Polybius, three. forty six. 30. Zonaras, eight. 2. 31. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, sixteen. 32. Polyaenus, 6. 6. three. 33. Dionysius, 19. nine. 34. Xenophon, Hellenica, five. 1. 31. 35.

She fled to Corcyra and provided herself to Demetrius. continuously one to grab the possibility of a conquest, either political and sexual, Demetrius sailed together with his fleet to Corcyra and took ownership of either the island and Lanassa. at the approach domestic he additionally seized the island of Leucas. Pyrrhus, without fleet to name upon, used to be impotent to prevent him. Demetrius was once simply as stressed and bold as Pyrrhus. He now deliberate to invade Epirus, most likely hoping to take away this risk to his western frontier without end. In 289 Demetrius invaded Pyrrhus’ allies the Aetolians, hoping to neutralize them ahead of he invaded Epirus.

In 297, Ptolemy determined to aid Pyrrhus' go back to Epirus, and supplied him with either males and cash. Ptolemy used to be possibly profiting from the location in Europe following the demise of Cassander in that 12 months. With Neoptolemus' customer lifeless, Ptolemy took the chance, as others had performed earlier than, to put his personal guy at the Epirot throne, and provides himself an invaluable best friend at the Greek mainland. Given the background of enmity among Cassander's and Pyrrhus' households, the recent Macedonian king, Philip IV, and Pyrrhus have been not likely to be amicable neighbours.

After facing Locris, Pyrrhus used to be capable of march unmolested to Tarentum. At this aspect his forces numbered 20,000 foot and 3,000 horse. 6 This was once a strength significantly greater than the 8,000 or in order that he had taken to Sicily. the extra troops have been, probably, Sicilian Greek mercenaries. Pyrrhus then bolstered his military with the decide of the Tarentine troops. extra of an issue for Pyrrhus used to be cash. His Italian allies have been tired by means of 5 years of just about consistent war and have been unwilling to supply adequate contributions to keep up his forces.

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